Sunday, May 24, 2020
Muchos padres de otros paÃ ses desean que sus hijos cursen un aÃ ±o de high school en Estados Unidos. Si eres uno de ellos y te preguntas quÃ © visa se requiere, debes saber que hay varias opciones.Ã TambiÃ ©n es importante saber cuÃ ¡l no se deberÃ a utilizar, ya que es una violaciÃ ³n migratoria que puede dar lugar a problemas graves. En este artÃ culo se brinda informaciÃ ³n sobre todas las visas americanas que permiten estudiar en Estados Unidos con anÃ ¡lisis detallado de cada una de ellas, con sus ventajas e inconvenientes y las visas que son derivadas de Ã ©sas. AdemÃ ¡s, se explica los posibles problemas de estudiar con una visa de turista. Tipos de visas americanas que permiten estudiar high school en Estados Unidos Son las siguientes: J-1, que es una visa de intercambio con un programa que permite estudiar.Ã F-1, que es una visa de estudiante acadÃ ©mico.F-3, una visa exclusivamente para mexicanos y canadienses.Ã M-1,visa para estudios vocacionales y tÃ ©cnicos.M-3, visa para estudios vocacionales para mexicanos y canadienses. Cada visa tiene sus propias reglas, por lo que debe saberse cuÃ ¡l es la que mejor se adapta a las necesidades de cada estudiante.Ã Visas J-1 para estudiar high school en Estados Unidos Bajo el nombre de visas J-1 de intercambio se encuentran programas muy diversos entre sÃ . Entre ellos, el que permite a los estudiantes internacionales realizar estudios de secundaria en los Estados Unidos. Sus principales caracterÃ sticas son: El dÃ a en que comienzan las clases el estudiante debe tener mÃ ¡s de 15 aÃ ±os de edad y menos de 18 aÃ ±os y seis meses. AdemÃ ¡s, como mÃ ¡ximo, el estudiante sÃ ³lo puede haber completado 11 grados (cursos) a contar desde el inicio de la educaciÃ ³n obligatoria en su paÃ s. Mientras realiza sus estudios en Estados Unidos, el estudiante internacional no puede vivir en casa de familiares o de amigos de la familia. Obligatoriamente debe alojarse en un internado o con una familia estadounidense de acogida designada por los administradores del programa. Se puede estudiar en una escuela pÃ ºblica o en una privada, pero no se puede haber estudiado previamente en Estados Unidos ni con una visa J-1 ni con una F-1 en programas acadÃ ©micos por un aÃ ±o o en semestres de intercambio, pero sÃ en programas de estudios de inglÃ ©s en verano o semejantes. Los estudiantes internacionales pueden, previa autorizaciÃ ³n, participar en actividades extraescolares deportivas. Pero no pueden trabajar, salvo actividades esporÃ ¡dicas como cuidar niÃ ±os, conocido en inglÃ ©s como baby-sitting. Por Ã ºltimo, es imprescindible para obtener la visa J-1 iniciar los trÃ ¡mites a travÃ ©s de una organizaciÃ ³n autorizada por el gobierno de los Estados Unidos. Es frecuente que fuera de los Estados Unidos existan organizaciones que colaboran con las estadounidenses para reclutar alumnos o facilitar la tramitaciÃ ³n deÃ todos los papeles necesarios. Pero los patrocinadores reales de esta visa son siempre los expresamente mencionados en el listado de Designated Sponsor Organizations. Para encontrar los que aplican especÃ ficamente a este programa, en la opciÃ ³n de Program, clickar en la flecha y buscarÃ la opciÃ ³n de Secondary School Students. Se inicia todo el proceso contactando con una de esas organizaciones. En otras palabras, no se puede solicitar la visa al consulado o a la embajada sin tener documentaciÃ ³n previa que obligatoriamente deben dar una de las organizaciones patrocinadoras. La visa F-1 para estudiar high school en Estados Unidos La visa F-1 es utilizada frecuentemente por los estudiantes internacionales que desean residir con un familiar, por ejemplo, tÃ os o abuelos, mientras estÃ ¡n cursando sus estudios, pero la puede utilizar cualquier estudiante internacional de high school que no desee estar limitado por las reglas de la visa J-1, explicadas en el pÃ ¡rrafo anterior. Ã Para estudiar la secundaria con este tipo de visa hay que conocer las reglas: En primer lugar, sÃ ³lo se puede estudiar la secundaria, es decir, grados 9 a 12. No se puede solicitar una visa F-1 para cursar estudios en primaria. En segundo lugar, sÃ ³lo se puede cursar un aÃ ±o acadÃ ©mico por un mÃ ¡ximo de 12 meses. Este lÃ mite sÃ ³lo aplica a escuelas pÃ ºblicas pero no a las privadas o a programas para estudio de inglÃ ©s. En tercer lugar, esÃ obligatorio pagar el costo de la educaciÃ ³n a la escuela. Esto es asÃ aÃ ºn cuando se trate de high schools pÃ ºblicas. Por ley no se puede ignorar este requerimiento. El costo varÃ a de escuela a escuela y puede ir de los $3,000 a los $10,000.Ã Y en cuarto lugar, antes de solicitar la visa es necesario contactar con la high school que debe emitir un documento que se conoce como I-20 para iniciarse asÃ el proceso de la peticiÃ ³n. Es decir, primero se es admitido y luego se solicita al consulado el otorgamiento de la visa. La visa F-3 para mexicanos y canadienses Los estudiantes mexicanos y canadiensesÃ o los residentes legales que residen en MÃ ©xico o CanadÃ ¡ y que residen a lo largo de la frontera on Estados Unidos y que desean realizar estudios en una instituciÃ ³n fronteriza pueden solicitar una visa F-3, que es muy similar pero distinta en sus requerimientos a una visa F-1. Uno de las limitaciones mÃ ¡s importantes a tener en cuenta es que no se puede elegir estudiar en cualquier high school sino que la escuela elegida debe estar como mÃ ¡ximo a 75 millas de la frontera. AdemÃ ¡s, es obligatorio que el estudiante conserve su residencia en su paÃ s de origen. Visas M-1 y M-3 La visa M-1 permite realizar en Estados Unidos estudios vocacionales y tÃ ©cnicos, es decir, no acadÃ ©micos, por ejemplo, relacionados con MÃ ºsica, Arte, Cocina, etc. Sus reglas son similares a las de la F-1, aunque no iguales. Para solicitarla primero es necesario haber sidoÃ admitido previamente en el programa que se desea cursar y obtener el documento que se conoce como I-20 que debe emitir la escuela. SÃ ³lo a continuaciÃ ³n se puede pedir la visa M-1 en el consulado correspondiente. La visa M-3 es un hÃ brido entre la M-1 y la F-3 y permite a los mexicanos y canadienses que residen en una ubicaciÃ ³n cercana a la frontera con Estados Unidos cursar en este paÃ s estudios vocacionales o tÃ ©cnicos. Visas derivadas de las de estudiantes y quiÃ ©n se puede beneficiar de ellas En Estados Unidos, lasÃ visas temporales de trabajo, de estudios, de intercambio o de inversiÃ ³n permiten que los cÃ ³nyuges y losÃ hijos menores de 21 aÃ ±os que estÃ ¡n solteros de las personas que tienen esas visas pueden acompaÃ ±arlos con lo que se conoce como una visa derivada. Por ejemplo, una investigadora con visa J-1 puede viajar a Estados Unidos con su cÃ ³nyuge, y Ã ©ste tendrÃ a una visa J-2. Sin embargo, en el caso que trata este artÃ culo, es decir, visas para estudiantes de high school, es altamente improbable que se solicite una visa derivada, por la edad del beneficiario de la visa.Ã Sin embargo, los padres del estudiante internacional no tiene derecho a una visa derivada. En otras palabras, no puede obtener una visa porque quiere estar en Estados Unidos acompaÃ ±ando a hijo o su hija mientras Ã ©ste estÃ ¡ completando sus estudios. Error de estudiar en EEUU con estatusÃ de turista Por decisiÃ ³n de la Corte Suprema todas las escuelas pÃ ºblicas estÃ ¡n obligadas a admitir estudiantes que viven en su distrito escolar. Esto es asÃ para evitar que los niÃ ±os indocumentados se queden sin escolarizar. Pero esta regla es a veces abusada por estudiantes internacionales que estudian en escuelas pÃ ºblicas cuando se encuentran en los Estados Unidos en condiciÃ ³n de turistas, ya porque tienen una visa B2 o porque son ciudadanos de paÃ ses que pueden ingresar a USA sin visa. Cuando se produce esta situaciÃ ³n se estÃ ¡ cometiendo una violaciÃ ³n migratoria y, si es descubierta o se sospecha de esta situaciÃ ³n los oficiales migratorios en la frontera estÃ ¡n autorizados para prohibirle el ingreso a Estados Unidos y a cancelarle la visa.Ã Asimismo se estÃ ¡n dando casos en los que cuando se detecta una de estas situaciones tambiÃ ©n se cancela la visa americana a los padres del estudiante, si la tuvieran.Ã Y lo cierto es que una vez que se produce la cancelaciÃ ³n de la visa por esta causa no es fÃ ¡cil que el consulado emita una nueva. Por esta razÃ ³n y porque es una ilegalidad migratoria, los estudiantes internacionales de high school deben ingresar a USA con la visa correcta. La Ã ºnica excepciÃ ³n es cuando se ingresa de vacaciones y se asiste a clases con carÃ ¡cter recreacional y siempre por menos de 19 horas a la semana. Convalidaciones, homologaciones y salto a college A la hora de estudiar en un paÃ s extranjero es importante conocer las reglas de homologaciÃ ³n de estudios tanto de Estados Unidos como del propio paÃ s. Estas son las organizaciones que pueden convalidar para estudiar en USA. Por Ã ºltimo, si despuÃ ©s de estudiar la high school se desea continuar en un college o universidad, estos son los requisitos que se piden para tener Ã ©xito en la admisiÃ ³n. Es un proceso complejo que conviene empezar con tiempo de antelaciÃ ³n . Este artÃ culo es meramente informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
9. Name and discuss the significance of four Agents of/Participants in Socialization. The four Agents of Socialization are the family, school, peers, and workplace. Family is a huge and very influential agent of Socialization, Families today are so vastly diverse and the environment a child grows up in has a lasting affect on them. Although children spent a lot of time with their family, a majority of their life is spent in school. School is where children are first introduced to authority outside of the home, and how they react is crucial. Peers are also another agent of Socialization, Influence is key in a peer group. Some peer groups alleviate pressure and stress in a good way, but others cause pressure and stress. The fourth agent of Socialization is the workplace. The workplace can be an uplifting motivational environment or a depressing environment. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude about work contributes to their overall attitude about life. 10. According to Becker (Ã¢â¬Å"Becoming a Marijuana UserÃ¢â¬ ), what is the process involved for a person who becomes a habitual user of marijuana? Becker states, Ã¢â¬Å"An individual will be able to use marijuana for pleasure only when he goes through a process of learning to conceive of it as an object that can be used in this wayÃ¢â¬ (5). Through his study Becker repeats several times an individual must learn how to use the drug. He also says a user must perceive the effects and enjoy them (3-4), or the user will discontinue using the drug. 11.Show MoreRelatedEffects Of Socialization1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSocialization is defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"process by which individuals acquire thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Ã¢â¬Å"appropriateÃ¢â¬ to their positions in society,Ã¢â¬ (Rohall 149). Individuals experience socialization beginning the day they are born, and throughout most of their lives. It can occur through everyday observation and interaction at every stage of development, or it can occur more formally though education and mentors. Socialization is important to how individuals interact in society and it also playsRead MoreSocialisation After Adolescence Essay1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEssay Summary 1) Adult socialization is a time of learning new roles and statuses. 2) Peer Groups are strong socializing agents for adolescents who are still trying to find their own identity. 3) Radio, television, cinema, newspapers, magazines, music, and the Internet are powerful agents of socialization. 4) The state almost shapes our life cycle. 5) School plays a major role in socializing adolescents. It is a place of education where the individual learns to socialize with both authorityRead MoreAnswers on Questions Regarding the Relationship between Violence and Child Development1338 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGerard Roe, 2009) 2) Socialization is the process through which individuals learn to be proficient, capable members of a group or society. This is done by molding their behavior and adapting it to ways of acting that is considered appropriate in the society in which the individual lives. In simple words socialization teaches a person how to act. This process begins at the time of birth and continues throughout an individuals lifespan. It occurs when various agents interact with one another;Read MoreArousal Reappraisal and Social Anxiety696 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmotivational resources over timeÃ¢â¬ , is true. Motivation is something that needs development of the right tool and resources over time. One tool to help build inner motivational resources is the concept of appraisal. Appraisal is an estimate of the personal significance of an event (i.e. is this life event important?). This also means that appraisal, and not the event it self, causes how one feels and how one is motivated to act. For exampl e, a person with social anxiety is scared to do anything with social interactionsRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ ²Discuss How Far Sociologists Would Agree That Teenage Criminal and Deviant Behaviour Results from Parents Failing to Socialise Their Children CorrectlyÃ¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ ´977 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbecoming rich through the system of meritocracy. Merton also argued that deviant or criminal activities defer from the shared norms and values of society which leads to anomie. This means people would be uncertain over the norms and values. The significance of this is that MertonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory would be likely to affect lower/ working class families as they have little chance of achieving success therefore they would want to find an alternative to success. Merton would blame parents for failing to socialiseRead MoreThe Fundamental Agents Of Socialization976 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs one of the most fundamental agents of socialization, the social construct of traditional families had contin ued to be molded and transformed by events in history. Most families in the United States no longer thrive within the traditional boundaries and guidelines set by our forefathers. At first, families within the United States consisted of a father, a mother and a few children; however, due to historical events, traditional families shifted to include same-sex couples, single parents, and fewerRead MoreHiring A Gender Wage Disparity Through The United States Awareness Bake Sale993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreading Sklar, our class discussed what we thought about the reading and it was shocking to hear the additional information that was given on wage gaps between males and females. According to KalantariÃ¢â¬â¢s The Influence of Social Values and Childhood Socialization on Occupational Gender Segregation and Wage Disparity, statistics are provided to demonstrate that although female participation in the paid workforce has increased, overall women s wages relative to men s has not. Using the latest statisticsRead MoreSport Sociology : Sports As A Part Of Cultural And Social Life1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand religion and more importantly a functional alternative action. That is to say that sport is like a retroactive version that can represent these social actions or serve as a substitute. Sports are a central source of identity, meaning, and socialization simultaneously offering emotional experiences that are similar to the stimulation generated in war. The success of sports in this regard is evidently dependent on the fact that, in modern forms, the physical risks that are innate in any group enlistmentRead MoreCrime and Violence2453 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesp eoples particularly males. In the fight against the increase in acts of crime and violence in Trinidad and Tobago we as a nation must take the initiative to address the issues of globalization, family diversity, education and the challenging socialization situation of our society today. Statistics have show that there has been a significant increase in the number of acts of violence and reported crimes especially by young people. In the year 2007 there were 395 murders and 115 kidnapping, this numberRead MoreThe Social Construction Of Reality1806 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageshuman nature, or does it depend on agents of socialization? Most importantly, why is society the way it is? Society is developed through a number reasons, including a combination of an understanding of needs and wants of others as well as oneself, the influences on others, and social interactions. The significance of the Social Construction of Reality in contemporary society depends on the limits of socialization, theories of socialization, agents of socialization, social interactions, and the social
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Medium of exchange is what a buyer uses to purchase either a good or service from a seller, in most cases this is going to be money. Money is an accepted medium of exchange because we know that we will be able to obtain goods and services if we have the money to purchase them. Unit of account is used to measure and record economic value. We will write a custom essay sample on Medium of Exchange or any similar topic only for you Order Now This means that we use this when the amounts will be measured in dollars and not the quantity of goods. The store of value is when someone will keep the money that they have received for a good or service and spend it in the future on a good or service for themselves. One example of using money as a unit of account is my student loans. Right now there are no payments on the loans but in the future they payments will be measured in amounts of money. I do run my own business making jewelry when accepting payment for my jewelry I will use store of value which means that I will keep the money that I make selling my jewelry for future purchases that I may make. I may decide to purchase more supplies or even putting the money in my savings account to build up. When using money as a medium of exchange the one example that comes to mind is shopping at the grocery store. This is a place where money is the only medium of exchange and the money is always accepted for the groceries that one buys. How to cite Medium of Exchange, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss the comparison between UK and US Health care system? Answer: Introduction The mainstream themes of study over the world are the health security systems. Their notoriety is anticipated not simply to the general human requirement for health security, moreover to the distinctive markers of the allotment procedures and subsidizing all around all through the world. These various sorts depend considerably on each nation's administration method for history, way of life, and level of developing. While a subject that has a great impact on the present and years to come, health security is an essential thought of the lawful and begin method for way of life in the US. In particular, openness health security is as often as possible drew out on TV news, saw all through administration ensures, and determined inside begin classes. This demonstrates that the United States' begin is enhancing closer to looking at better mindfulness health security (Fried and Gaydos, 2002). A typical confusion all through the US is that country who give national Medical legitimate considerat ion techniques, for example, northern piece of the U. S. Proclaims and the UK, give 100 % free Medical legitimate consideration. Though numerous options are putting forth absolutely free at the purpose of appropriation, for the most part, these national Medical legitimate consideration techniques give choices basically through the shows of inhabitant assessments. Individuals in the U. S. are considering enhanced government support in health security; in this way, it is critical to see how this could be accomplished and the impact it could have on a group (Lassey, Lassey and Jinks, 1997). This report is intended to evaluate two nations' medical care frameworks: the United Kingdom and the United States. These two nations have close conventional and social connections, yet concerning Medical legitimate consideration, the US and the UK are altogether distinctive. Since they change so remarkably, both nations could gain from one another to make better strategy and systems and therefore improve medical consideration accommodation to their particular individuals (Johnson and Stoskopf, 2010). Comparison between UK and US Health care system The current wellbeing and wellness frameworks in the UK and the US basically enhanced after Second Globe War. Experiencing comparative money related confusions in a post-war world, both government controllers educated government and social weight to give their specific populace better accessibility Medical consideration. They have since outlined rearward suggestions in their system improvement. The UK government's answer was an overall health consideration with one completely broad national health framework. This framework, the NHS, reacted to the UK individuals' quick prerequisite for a confirmation to health consideration openness when it began working in 1948 (Light and May, 1993). Toward the end of Second World War, it was the individual business in the US that generally tackled the obligation of Wellness great consideration openness. The US market saw a stable increment in health protection arrangement strategy organizations and applications, for example, the advancement of the government protection arrangement approach and state medicinal services program applications in the Sixties. Since the US doesn't offer overall Wellness great care, the individual wellbeing industry, alongside protection arrangement approach, decided a significant part of the unavoidable advancement toward the took care of great consideration action (Sharp, 2004). Though the United Kingdom and the United States' wellness methods contrast essentially in the phase of government commitment and open obligation, both systems work in the same path with respect to accommodation. Both typically utilize essential wellness care as the first component of availability and capacity under provincial, compelling, and specific subsystems. Despite the fact that these subsystems are taken care of by the administration in the UK and by individual organizations in the US, it is really in the obligation of dealings where there is a conspicuous refinement (Stahl, 2004). The UK populace have entry NHS health consideration highlights and administrations that are financed through basic tariff. Though medical care accessibility is offered and paid for by the government of the UK, it is the individuals, through assessment, who essentially pay for their own particular medical legitimate consideration. The NHS Plan anticipates significantly incorporate the patients and specialists in its future, yet the administration of the entire NHS framework truly fills in as a manager by the government of the UK (Klein, 2004). In the US, availability wellness consideration highlights and medicinal administrations are for the most part paid for by a blend of payers, associations, and individual commitment. The US health system relies on upon the capacity and strategy impact of both open and individual associations to work as a creative, free market. Though 44% of US wellness legitimate consideration costs is uninhibitedly subsidized, essentially all financing originates from individual houses as expenses, commitments, and pay-move rebate rates. Though medical legitimate care in the UK is taken care of by the administration and medical care in the US is principally taken care of actually, both generally are just made conceivable by the people. The primary changes are the level of blessing commitment and important assessments contrasted with non-reflex endeavours. The UK gives health consideration accessibility all utilizing an as a part of the same way run health and wellness accommodation program in the US, though the US is enduring the monetary weight on their without protection. Accordingly, the US has generally fizzled in furnishing People America with moderate health security choices and instruction on the effect it has on the economy (Petratos, 2005). Conclusion The U. S. is generally established upon its promise of the rights and privileges of its kin. Formal data is considered and acknowledged as a privilege to all in the US. Not just does the UK perceive comparable rights and rights as the US, yet it likewise contains the privilege to get proper accessibility health security. Also, pretty much as though one picks singular over gathering data in the US, one must have the capacity to pick singular over the gathering medical care in the UK (Henderson, 2002). Though there is an activity in the UK for higher commitment between the NHS and individual medical legitimate consideration, there is likewise an activity in the US for health security change that may comprise of the execution of an overall medical legitimate consideration framework. Accordingly, two health security strategies that have normally been respected at opposite completions of the assortment have begun to find better approaches for approaching their specific routines and have found favourable circumstances in the work and accommodation of one another. Thus, these systems are more indistinguishable than they are diverse, and their goal is the sameto give great, practical availability medical legitimate need to their specific group. References 1. Fried, B. and Gaydos, L. (2002). World health systems. Chicago: Health Administration Press. 2. Henderson, J. (2002). Health economics and policy. Australia: South-Western/Thomson Learning. 3. Johnson, J. and Stoskopf, C. (2010). Comparative health systems. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.. 4. Klein, R. (2004). Britain's National Health Service Revisited. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(9), pp.937-942. 5. Lassey, M., Lassey, W. and Jinks, M. (1997). Health care systems around the world. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. 6. Light, D. and May, A. (1993). Britain's health system. Washington, DC: Faulkner Gray's Healthcare Information Center. 7. Petratos, P. (2005). Does the Private Finance Initiative Promote Innovation in Health Care? The Case of the British National Health Service. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 30(6), pp.627-642. 8. Sharp, N. (2004). Washington Health Policy Institute: June 2004. policy polit nurs pract, 5(1), pp.55-56. 9. Stahl, M. (2004). Encyclopedia of health care management. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Tuesday, March 31, 2020
Social policy and the welfare state Essay Social rights were in the past developed in order to ease the most negative effects of early capitalism. The development of social rights was mostly understood as the result of attempts to make civil rights essentially work by removing the barriers that blocked the full and equivalent exercise of civil and political rights. Capitalist market relations, poverty and insufficient education tended to lessen these latter rights to mere formalities, a disagreement that formed the necessity for social policy. The development of the welfare state according to this explanation is the historical process by which members of a national community as citizens became inclusively permitted to the material promises of civil freedom and political fairness. There is surely that the expansion of social welfare has certainly contributed to the material promises of both civil and political parity. The more widespread post-war welfare states, whether they belong to the moderate, social-democratic or conservative regime surely meant a significant step in the improvement of the quality of life for various citizens. In the time of welfare development and consolidation, from around 1945 to 1975, the implication of citizenship was not much discussed; the significance of social citizenship was taken for granted and the motive for an extension of social rights seemed rather evident. While first published in 1950, Marshalls Citizenship and Social Class received little attention, particularly outside the United Kingdom. We will write a custom essay sample on Social policy and the welfare state specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Social policy and the welfare state specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Social policy and the welfare state specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer For Marshall, of course, rights were critical to the nature of citizenship. Marshall divided them into three types: 1. Civil rights, that is, those rights necessary for individual freedom-liberty of the person, freedom of speech, thought and faith, the right to own property and to conclude valid contracts, and the right to justice, which are provided for, Marshall argued, by the legal system. 2. Political rights, such as the right to participate in the exercising of power as a member of a governing body or an elector of such a body, allowed for by the nature of the democratic system. 3. Social rights, such as the rights to welfare, education, security and well-being, as befits a member of civil society, and allowed for by the Welfare State. (T.H. Marshall, 1950, 75). Such definitions obviously change, and, as Dwyer stress, these differences tend to reflect ideological differences transversely political parties on the question of human nature. Dwyer was critical of Marshal, he asserts that people think the welfare state must not be just a channel to direct resources downwards, but must also be an organization of reciprocity, that offers good prospects and support for those who contribute, but do not waste resources on those who fail to do so. People must share an essential set of rights and tasks, which can mean receivers of welfare must put up with sure rules (Dwyer, 2004, 57). Whereas neo-liberals and neo-conservatives on the right underlines individual freedom and self-management above community or society participation, those on the Left invert the distinction. In all cases, although, issues have been heaved time and again on those concerns which are debarred from the discourse on citizenship rights. Marxist critics of Marshall have pointed to the absence of economic rights from his list. In the era of welfare reform and welfare cynicism, there has been much more discussion about, and contested explanations of, citizenship. At the same time with the rise of the welfare state crisis (a notion that must be used with great caution) citizenship arose as a central idea in many discussions, both scientific and supporting. It has been used by academics trying to grasp and explicate recent transformations in welfare states, by politicians reformulating the relations involving citizens rights and duties vis-Ã -vis the state, among social organizations and social movements inquiring disintegrating and new forms of social consistency and community life and by global institutions such as the EU to name and frame the position of citizens concerning the nation-state and supranational levels of policy making. Within this framework Marshalls text on citizenship has been rediscovered. The historical sequence Marshall presented is uncertain. Marshall argued that citizenship consists of civil, political and social mechanism that corresponds to succeeding phases in the history of capitalist countries. Eighteenth-century civil rights recognized individual freedom, nineteenth-century political rights inducted political freedom, and twentieth-century social rights provided the foundation of social welfare. This series of citizenship rights suggests a comparatively autonomous development in which every new step of citizenship consequences progressively from a previous step. As a result, social rights are viewed as more advanced than political rights. Though, on closer inspection the association between various rights seems to be less sequential. The inspiration of sequence and progress is mainly relevant for current developments. What does welfare state economizing, for instance, mean for the assumption of the constant advancement of citizenship? Current developments show that citizenship rights do not mechanically develop in a more advanced form, but that drawbacks and backlashes might also occur. For instance, access to social security entitlements and the rank and terms of benefits has lately been limited in many European countries. Moreover, the excellence of social services, such as education and health care, has decreased in diverse countries, as there are sometimes long queues. Such developments endanger the idea of universality, as the expansion of the National Health Service in the UK clearly illustrates. Thus, it is not clear that social citizenship in itself is the end of a sequence. Instead, it needs to be endlessly re-evaluated and redefined. Though, the comparison between New Labours approach and that of neoconservative goes considerably deeper than shared rhetoric, though. For both, there is a strong temper to regard the replacement of voluntary activity for state-provided services within civil society (what Alexander calls the informal non-state) as both a political and a moral advance (Alexander 1995:34). Now, we do not doubt that there can be many instances where such agencies have a important role to play, but we are concerned that here as elsewhere in New Labours repertoire, there tends ever more to be a assertive insistence that the private sector and the assistance of independent not-for-profit organizations, should in principle be preferable to provision by the state. The obvious risk is that this project of redefining community as a congeries of voluntary organizations and behavior within a reinvigorated civil society might insidiously erode an ever-widening range of citizenship entitlements. It is, besides, not only New Labours critics on the Left who have distinguished a strand of disingenuousness in these efforts to present the party as competent of combining support for sturdily neo-liberal economic policies with the renaissance of a strong commitment to a revived citizenship agenda. The neoconservative philosopher Roger Scruton has highlighted what he sees as clear parallels between Thatcherism and the practice of New Labour in office. Reminding his readers that out of office, New Labour spokesmen repeatedly castigated the Ã¢â¬Å"culture of greedÃ¢â¬ which Ã¢â¬ ¦ they associated with big business, with the city, with free trade and free markets, Scruton argues that in office and under Tony Blair: Ã¢â¬Å"Business is still firmly in the driving seat. The Prime Minister appoints business moguls to the House of Lords with the same unconscionable eagerness as Margaret Thatcher Ã¢â¬ ¦ Look at Labour policy in any of the areas in which the capitalist giants have an interest Europe, EMU, mergers and monopolies, the environment, agri-business and you will see electoral promises and moral convictions crumbling before the imperatives of trade. The argument has been accepted, as it was accepted under Thatcher, that prosperity means growth that growth means globalization, and that globalization means the abolition of local restraints Ã¢â¬ ¦ Mr. Blair describes himself as a Christian Socialist: he is no such thing. Like Baroness Thatcher, he is a nineteenth century liberal. He may never have said you cant buck the market but he acts as if it were trueÃ¢â¬ . (Scruton 1998, 24) However, citizenship as recognition and empowerment obviously represents a form of political identity. Nothing here essentially requires the presence of a state in the accepted sense of the term. Actually, for citizenship to mean membership and empowerment within a civil society is as meaningful-and truer to its origins-as for it to mean an indenture made between an individual and a political state. Also, the degree to which this form of political identity can facilitate the empowerment of the individual seems to rely very much on the extent to which citizenship discourse is permitted to take place within an invigorated public sphere. Similarly, for nationalism to denote respect for ones culture is as meaningful, and almost surely more important, than for it to mean obedience to ones political structure; but again, for this to become politically empowering, it needs conditions that make public debate possible. Including citizenship extends the territoriality to take in the entire world and all its (human) inhabitants, while non-modern citizenship aspects to the citizen primary membership and sense of commitment to a non-territorialized (typically culturally defined) group. Though, these interpretations have been rendered trivial by the centrality of one dominant understanding which has leaned to assume a relationship between citizenship and the idea of the state. Citizenship rights to have extended to include social rights, women still had not attained basic civil or political rights. In several cases political rights emerged before civil rights for women, and served as a essential power-base for them. Different groups may attain different stages of citizenship rights at different times. Vogel offers a sharper evaluation of Marshalls perspective, pointing out that the exclusion of women from the citizenship society was a direct. Consequence of the emergence of such entitlements for men. From such a viewpoint, then, the very notion of citizenship can be associated to theories about the patriarchal nature of modern Western societies, in a similar element to the Marxist critique of social democracy and citizenship rights as conflict-reducing but system-serving attempts to evade more structural inequalities. If Citizenship excludes it become pluralistic. Instead of facing the seemingly unattainable task of encouraging a sense of universal human membership, educators are asked instead to underline the multiplicity of identities and memberships. In this respect, the kinds of memberships one might talk concerning may very well be at a more local level than the nation-state. If education seeks to support diversity and the respect for others, it needs to show how there are no universal identities which inevitably exclude all others. Multicultural education for global citizenship means, specifically, that one can identify with ones street, with ones neighborhood, with ones family, with ones ethnic or religious background, with ones nation-state., or with the world as a complete. In short, citizenship is not-should not-be only about identification with or membership of the world as a whole. Instead, it is concerning the rich diversity of such memberships and identifications that make up this gl obe.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
The Etymology (and Punctuation) of Fathers Day The Etymology (and Punctuation) of FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s Day Happy Fathers Day! And what better way to celebrate than with a little etymology? A slap-up meal followed by a nap in the sunshine, you say? ThereÃ¢â¬â¢ll be time for that later! For now, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at where the word Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ comes from and why we use an apostrophe in Ã¢â¬Å"Fathers Day.Ã¢â¬ The Etymology of Father Our modern word Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ comes from the Old English fÃ ¦der, which meant Ã¢â¬Å"he who begets a child.Ã¢â¬ This is close to several words for fathers in other languages, including Old Norse (fathir), German (Vater), Sanskrit (pitar), and Latin and Greek (both use pater). In fact, the similarities between these words suggest a common source. As such, most experts trace Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ to a Proto-Indo-European term. And while we cannot know what this was exactly, it may have been something like pÃâ¢ter-. Fatherhood is tough when your kids look down on you. Pa, Papa, Dad, and More So if Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ comes from pÃâ¢ter-, where does this term come from? It may have evolved from the basic noise Ã¢â¬Å"pa,Ã¢â¬ which we still see in words like Ã¢â¬Å"papa.Ã¢â¬ The words Ã¢â¬Å"dadÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"dadaÃ¢â¬ have similar origins in Ã¢â¬Å"da,Ã¢â¬ and we see these simple sounds in words for fathers all over the world. The main theory for why we see this pattern so much is that Ã¢â¬Å"da,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"pa,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"taÃ¢â¬ are some of the first noises babies can make. The same is true of the Ã¢â¬Å"maÃ¢â¬ from Ã¢â¬Å"mama,Ã¢â¬ which becomes Ã¢â¬Å"mom.Ã¢â¬ As such, when babies start making noises like Ã¢â¬Å"daÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"pa,Ã¢â¬ we assume theyÃ¢â¬â¢re addressing their parents. And over time, this has led to words like Ã¢â¬Å"dadÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"paÃ¢â¬ entering our everyday speech. Fathers Day vs. Fathers Day As a rule, you should always include an apostrophe in Fathers Day. This is the traditional way of writing it, but it also makes sense. After all, you usually focus on your own father on this day. Thus, the Ã¢â¬Å"FatherÃ¢â¬ in Fathers Day is typically one person, even if that person is different for each of us. Writing Ã¢â¬Å"Fathers DayÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Fathers Day,Ã¢â¬ on the other hand, would imply youÃ¢â¬â¢re celebrating fathers in general. And while that would be admirable, youÃ¢â¬â¢d need a lot of stamps to send a card to every father in the world. All in all, then, youÃ¢â¬â¢re probably better off focusing on your own dad for today.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Choose a 1-2 paragraph passage from ancient Roman times and write a commentary on it - Essay Example This need to declare publically oneÃ¢â¬â¢s belief during worship is emphasized in the bible, under the book of Romans 10: 9-10: I believe in God the Father Almighty, creator of heaven and earth. The first line of the creed offers a description of God as omnipotent and the maker of all that is in the heavens and the earth. This statement is meant to establish God as the creator and the only force behind creation and put an emphasis on his power. It also gives the origin of humanity and supports the Christian belief that God made man from his own image. This means that every human being was created in the likeness of God, and all persons are equal before the eyes of the Lord (Cooper 1). God is all-powerful and has the control of everything that exists in the universe. This is a quite contrast to some pagan beliefs, especially those found on most eastern religions, of two gods of equal strength. This first line exists to refute these claims and establish God as the only Supreme Being, whose power is unparalleled in the universe (Jones 6). And in Jesus Christ, His only son The second line defines Jesus Christ as the embodied son of God (Inyang 2). This is because many religions that were opposed to Christianity disputed the existence of Jesus Christ; leave alone the belief that he was the son of God. Other religions, such as Islam, consider Jesus to have existed as a mere minor prophet or a teacher. This statement therefore refutes this claim and places belief on Jesus Christ as the only son of God (McFall 1). Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary? Jesus Christ, unlike any other human being, was born in a special manner. His birth into the humanly form was considered special because his mother, Mary, was a virgin at the time of his conception. The book of Matthew: 1: 23, in the New Testament, gives the prophecy of the birth of Christ. It states, Ã¢â¬Å"Behold, the virgin shall be with child and shall bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel, which translated means, Ã¢â¬ËGod with usÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (New King James Version, Matthew: 1: 23). However, distinction exists between the Christian Catholics and the Protestants about the status of Mary. The Protestants view Mary as the human mother of God as opposed to the Catholics who view Mary as the mother of God (Jones 6). Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried Although there were some historical debates as to the necessity of including the Pontius Pilate in the ApostleÃ¢â¬â¢s creed, it was quelled down by his historical significance he played in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ (Rufinus 38). The reference to the Pontius Pilate also places importance on the necessity of time line. This is because the reference places Jesus at a specific place in that period. It therefore authenticates the crucifixion of Jesus Christ (Jones 6). He descended into hell This statement is somehow controversial amongst many Christian scholars because it was not present in the roman manuscript and is missing in most protestant manuscripts (Jones 6). The word Ã¢â¬ËhellÃ¢â¬â¢ in this phrase also does not refer to the hell that is highlighted in the book of revelations, but rather it refers to hades. This phrase refers to the victory of Jesus against death. It shows that Christians need not fear death as Jesus had already won the war for them (Calvin 5). The third day He rose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right